Tax facts - 2022/23

Based on Budget and other fiscal announcements to 17 November 2022

For more information on tax rates and other tax facts, please click on the links below or download the tax facts PDF.

INCOME TAX RATES
  2022/23    2021/22 Rate Note
Individuals - UK        
Starting rate
£1 - £5,000 20% £1 - £5,000 20% A, C, E
Basic rate  £5,001 - £37,700 20% £5,001 - £37,700 20% B, C, D, E
Higher rate £37,701 - £150,000

40%

£37,501 - £150,000 40% B, D, E, F
Additional rate
Over £150,000 45% Over £150,000 45% B, D, E, F
Individuals - Scottish income tax    

 
Starter rate 
£1 - £2,162 19% £1 - £2,097 19%  D
Basic rate 
£2,163 - £13,118 20% £2,098 - £12,726 20% C, D
Intermediate rate £13,119 - £31,092 21% £12,727 - £31,092 21% D
Higher rate
£31,093 - £150,000 41% £31,093 - £150,000 41% D
Top/Additional rate Over £150,000 46% Over £150,000 46% D
Trusts        
Standard rate £1 - £1,000 20% £1 - £1,000 20% B
Trust rate Over £1,000 45% Over £1,000 45% B

A Rate on non dividend savings income up to £5,000 is 0% where taxable non savings income does not exceed £5,000.
B A dividend allowance effectively taxes the first £2,000 (reducing to £1,000 from 6 April 2023 and £500 from 6 April 2024) of dividends received by individuals at 0%. Dividends above this limit are taxed at 8.75% (2021/22: 7.5%) for basic and standard rate taxpayers, 33.75% (2021/22: 32.5%) for higher rate taxpayers and 39.35% (2021/22: 38.1%) for additional and trust rate taxpayers.
C Scottish income tax and rate bands apply to earned, pensions and property income of Scottish taxpayers. UK income tax rates and bands apply for other income, including savings and dividend income of Scottish taxpayers.
D Basic rate band increased by gross Gift Aid donations and certain personal pension contributions.
E The Welsh government has the right to set the Welsh rate of income tax that applies to earned, pension and property income of Welsh taxpayers in addition to the UK rates after reducing those rates by 10%. The Welsh government set the Welsh rate of income tax at 10% for 2021/22, leaving the combined UK plus Welsh rates the same as those applying in England and Northern Ireland. The Welsh government set the Welsh rate of income tax at 10% for 2022/23 (2021/22: 10%), leaving the combined UK plus Welsh rates the same as those applying in England and Northern Ireland.
F The additional rate threshold will reduce to £125,140 from 6 April 2023.

INCOME TAX ALLOWANCES
   2022/23 2021/22 Note
Basic personal allowance  £12,570 £12,570 A, B
Married/civil partners allowance £9,415 £9,125 B, C
Minimum married/civil partners allowance £3,640 £3,530 B, C
Married/civil partners transferable allowance £1,260  £1,260 B
Income limit for married/civil partners allowance £31,400 £30,400  B
Blind persons allowance £2,600 £2,520  B
Rent a room relief limit £7,500 £7,500  
Savings allowance £1,000 £1,000 D
Trading income allowance £1,000 £1,000 E
Property income allowance £1,000 £1,000 E

A Reduced by £1 for every £2 of income over £100,000.
B Non UK residents may not be entitled to personal allowances in certain circumstances.
C Available to persons born before 6 April 1935. Relief limited to 10%. Reduced to minimum allowance by £1 for every £2 over income limit.
D £500 for UK higher rate taxpayers and £nil for UK additional rate taxpayers.
E If gross income in excess of £1,000, a deduction of £1,000 instead of actual expenses is permitted.

High income child benefit charge: 1% of the benefit per £100 of adjusted net income over £50,000: 100% of the benefit when adjusted net income is over £60,000.

PENSION CONTRIBUTIONS
  2022/23 2021/22 Note
Annual allowance £40,000 £40,000 A
Lifetime allowance £1,073,100 £1,073,100  

A A Up to the lower of 100% of earnings or the maximum contribution. Maximum contribution is the annual allowance plus unutilised allowances from the three previous tax years. Up to £3,600 may be contributed irrespective of earnings. Annual allowance reduced: by £1 for every £2 income over £240,000 to a minimum of £4,000; and, to £4,000 maximum if certain pension drawings made.

CAPITAL GAINS TAX

2022/23 2021/22 Note
Annual exemption      
Individuals £12,300 £12,300 A
Trusts £6,150 £6,150 B
Business asset disposal relief lifetime allowance £1m £1m  
Investors' relief lifetime allowance £10m £10m  
Individuals and trusts      
Basic and starting rate taxpayers 10% 10% C
Higher and additional rate taxpayers 20% 20% C
Trusts and personal representatives 20% 20% C
Rate where business asset disposal/investors' relief applies 10% 10%

A Reducing to £6,000 from 6 April 2023 and £3,000 from 6 April 2024.
B Reducing to £3,000 from 6 April 2023 and £1,500 from 6 April 2024.
C Gains on carried interest and chargeable residential property - 8% surcharge.

Non UK residents subject to capital gains tax (or corporation tax for companies) on sale of UK property and certain disposals of interests in UK property rich entities. 

Certain disposals of UK land and buildings by non UK residents and disposals of residential property by UK residents must be reported and the tax paid to HMRC within 60 days of sale (30 days for disposals completed prior to 27 October 2021).

INHERITANCE TAX
  2022/23 2021/22 Note
Nil rate band (NRB) £1 - £325,000 0% 0% A
Over £325,000 40% 40% B, C
       
Main exemptions   Gifts on marriage or civil partnership  
Annual gifts per donor £3,000 Parent £5,000
Small gifts per donee £250 Grandparent/remoter ancestor £2,500
Normal expenditure out of income Exempt Other £1,000

A Additional residence nil rate band (RNRB) of £175,000 for transfers of a main residence to direct descendants. NRB and RNRB for estate of surviving spouse are increased by unutilised percentage of NRB and RNRB of predeceased spouse. RNRB tapers away for estates over £2m.
B Some lifetime gifts are taxed at 20%.
C Tax rate reduced to 36% where 10% or more of net chargeable estate is left to charity.

NON DOMICILED REMITTANCE BASIS USERS
2022/23 2021/22
Personal allowance Nil Nil
Capital gains tax annual exemption Nil Nil
Remittance basis charge    
Unremitted income less than £2,000 Nil Nil
Resident in at least 7 of the previous 9 tax years £30,000 £30,000
Resident in at least 12 of the previous 14 tax years £60,000 £60,000

Certain returning former UK domiciled individuals, and non domiciled individuals who have been resident in the UK in at least 15 of the previous 20 tax years, are treated as if UK domiciled for income tax, capital gains tax and inheritance tax purposes.

NATIONAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTIONS  
Class 1  
Employer Note Employee   Note
Earnings per week Rate payable   Earnings per week Rate payable  
£0.01 - £175.00 Nil    £0.01 - £242.00 
(£0.01 - £190.00 to 5 July 2022)
Nil  
Over £175.00 13.8% A  £242.01 - £967.00
(£190.01 - £967.00 to 5 July 2022)
12.00% C
 
  Over £967.00 2.00%  D
Class 1A and 1B (employers only) 14.53% B  
Class 2 (self employed) £3.15 per week (for profits above lower profits limit £11,908 (£12,570 from 6 April 2023))  
Class 3 (voluntary) £15.85 per week  
Class 4 (self-employed) Profits up to £11,908 (£12,570 from 6 April 2023) Nil  
Profits from £11,909 (£12,571 from 6 April 2023) to £50,270 10.25%  
Profits above £50,270 per annum
2.73%  

15.05% between 6 April 2022 and 5 November 2022. 14.53% on earnings of company directors at any time in the 2022/23 tax year.
B For Class 1A amounts relating to sporting testimonial cash payments and termination awards, 15.05% to 5 November 2022, 13.8% on or after 6 November 2022.
13.25% between 6 April 2022 and 5 November 2022. 12.73% on earnings of company directors at any time in the 2022/23 tax year.
D 3.25% between 6 April 2022 and 5 November 2022. 2.73% on earnings of company directors at any time in the 2022/23 tax year.

The first £5,000 of employer's liability relieved by the employment allowance for employers with a NICs bill of less than £100,000. 

No employers NICs for employees aged under 21 (and apprentices up to age 25) on earnings up to £967 per week (the upper earnings limit), or for new employees in freeport tax sites on earnings up to £481 per week (the freeport upper secondary threshold). 

Apprenticeship Levy at 0.5% payable on annual pay bills in excess of £3m, net of £15,000 annual allowance.

INDIVIDUAL SAVINGS ACCOUNTS
Maximum annual investment 2022/23 2021/22
Cash and shares combined limit £20,000 £20,000
Lifetime ISA £4,000 £4,000
Junior ISA £9,000 £9,000

Help To Buy ISA - scheme closed to new accounts from 30 November 2019. Deposits of up to £200 per month eligible for existing accounts.

The lifetime ISA allowance counts towards the maximum cash and shares combined ISA limit.

TAX EFFICIENT SAVINGS AND INVESTMENTS
Maximum annual investment 2021/22 2020/21 Note
Seed enterprise investment scheme (SEIS) £100,000 £100,000 A, E, F
Venture capital trusts (VCTs) £200,000 £200,000 B
Enterprise investment scheme (EIS) £1m £1m B, C, D
Social investment tax relief £1m £1m B

A Income tax relief at 50%.
B Income tax relief at 30%.
C Up to £2m for 'knowledge-intensive' companies.
D Capital gains tax deferral on gains reinvested in EIS qualifying investments.
E Capital gains tax exemption on 50% of gains reinvested in SEIS qualifying investments.
F Increasing to £200,000 from 6 April 2023

STAMP DUTY
Consideration on shares over £1,000 0.5%
PROPERTY STAMP TAXES
Residential England & NI Scotland Wales Note
Price/premium payable SDLT LBTT LTT  
£1 - £145,000 Nil Nil Nil A
£145,001 - £225,000 Nil 2% Nil  A, B
£225,001 - £250,000 Nil 2% 6% A, B
£250,001 - £325,000 5% 5% 6% C
£325,001 - £400,000 5% 10% 6%  C
£400,001 - £750,000 5% 10% 7.5%  
£750,001 - £925,000 5% 12% 10%  
£925,001 - £1.5m 10% 12% 10%  
Over £1.5m 12% 12% 12%  

 Prior to 23 September 2022 and after 31 March 2025, a 2% SDLT rate band applies to consideration for residential properties between £125,001 and £250,000. 
B  Prior to 10 October 2022, a 3.5% LTT rate applied to consideration for residential properties between £180,001 and £250,000.
Prior to 10 October 2022, a 5% LTT rate applied to consideration for residential properties between £250,001 and £400,000.

First-time buyers are exempt from SDLT for purchases up to £425,000 (£300,000 prior to 23 September 2023 and after 31 March 2025) and for the first £425,000 of purchases up to £625,000 (the first £300,000 of purchases up to £500,000 prior to 23 September 2023 and after 31 March 2025).

3% (SDLT) and 4% (LBTT and LTT) supplements apply to above rates for second residential properties purchased by individuals and all purchases by corporates, discretionary and certain other trustees with chargeable consideration of £40,000 or more.

2% SDLT surcharge applies on residential properties acquired by non UK residents.

15% flat rate SDLT applies to non natural persons purchasing residential properties (enveloped properties) for more than £500,000 unless relief is available.


Residential leases

England and Northern Ireland - 1% on present value of rents above £250,000 (£125,000 to 23 September 2022), generally exempt in Scotland and nil in Wales.

Non residential/mixed use England & NI Scotland Wales
Price/premium payable SDLT LBTT LTT
£0 - £150,000 Nil Nil Nil
£150,001 - £225,000 2% 1% Nil
£225,001 - £250,000 2% 1% 1%
£250,001 - £1m 5% 5% 5%
Over £1m 5% 5% 6%

Non residential/mixed leases
England and Northern Ireland - 1% on present value of rents £150,001 to £5m, 2% above £5m.
Scotland - 1% on present value of rents £150,001 to £2m, 2% above £2m.
Wales - 1% on present value of rents £225,001 to £2m, 2% above £2m. 

Qualifying purchases in freeport tax sites eligible for full relief from SDLT.

ANNUAL TAX ON ENVELOPED DWELLINGS
Residential property value  2022/23 2020/21
£500,001 - £1m £3,800 £3,700
£1m - £2m £7,700 £7,500
£2m - £5m £26,050 £25,300
£5m - £10m £60,900 £59,100
£10m - £20m £122,250 £118,600
Over £20m £244,750 £237,400
RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY DEVELOPER TAX
Profits over: Rate
£25m 4%

Applies to relevant company profits derived from UK residential property development.

ENERGY PROFITS LEVY AND ELECTRICITY GENERATOR LEVY
  2022/23 2021/22 Note
Energy profits levy 35% N/A A, B
Electricity generator levy 45% N/A C

25% prior to 1 January 2023.
B Applies from 26 May 2022 to 31 March 2028 to relevant UK profits of oil and gas producers.
C Applies from 1 January 2023 to relevant UK profits of low-carbon electricity generators.

CORPORATION TAX AND DIVERTED PROFITS TAX
  2022/23 2021/22 Note
Corporation tax 19% 19% A
Loans to participators 33.75% 32.5%  
Restitution interest payments
corporation tax rate
45% 45% B
Diverted profits tax 25% 25% C, D

Increasing to 25% from 1 April 2023, with 19% small profits rate for profits below £50,000 and marginal relief for profits to £250,000 (thresholds reduced for associated companies). 
B
Withheld at source.
Applies to profits of large entities diverted from the UK as a result of an avoided permanent establishment or transactions that lack economic substance.
D Increasing to 31% from 1 April 2023

PATENT BOX
  2022/23 2021/22 Note
Effective rate of tax on qualifying profits 10% 10%  A
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TAX RELIEF
  2022/23  2021/22 Note
SME enhanced deduction scheme 130% 130%  A, D
SME cash credit for R&D loss surrendered 14.5% 14.5%  B, E
Large company R&D expenditure credit 13% 13%  C, F

A Additional (enhanced) tax deduction available for qualifying R&D expenditure.
B Payable R&D tax credit in any tax year in excess of £20,000 is restricted to three times the total relevant PAYE income tax and NICs liability for the year.
C Taxable credit available on qualifying R&D expenditure.
D Decreasing to 86% from 1 April 2023.
E Decreasing to 10% from 1 April 2023.
F Increasing to 20% from 1 April 2023.

 
LAND REMEDIATION TAX RELIEF
  2022/23  2021/22
Additional tax deduction 50% 50% 
Payable tax credit on surrenderable loss 16% 16% 
CREATIVE SECTOR TAX RELIEFS
Payable credit rates 2022/23  2021/22 Note
Film tax relief 25% 25%  A
High end television tax relief 25% 25%  A
Video games tax relief 25% 25%  A
Theatre tax relief 50% 25%  A, B,C
Orchestra tax relief 50% 25%  A, B
Museums and galleries exhibition tax relief 50% 25%  A, B, C

A Eligible expenditure qualifies for enhanced deductions. Rates quoted refer to payable tax credits for any resulting surrenderable losses.
2022/23 rates apply for expenditure between 27 October 2021 and 31 March 2023. Above rates scheduled to reduce to 35% for 2023/24 and to 25% for 2024/25, other than museums and galleries exhibition tax relief, which is currently due to end on 31 March 2024.
C Payable credits reduced by 5% for non-touring productions in all tax years.

CAPITAL ALLOWANCES
  2022/23 2021/22 Note
Plant and machinery      
Full expensing: super deduction 130% 130%  A
Full expensing: special rate first year allowances 50% 50% B
Annual investment allowance
100% 100% C
Long life assets and integral features 6% 6% D
Other assets 18% 18% D
First year allowances 100% 100% E
Enhanced capital allowances in freeports 100% 100% F
Cars: CO2 emissions (g/km)      
0  100% 100% G
1 to 50 18% 18% D
Over 50 6% 18% D
Structures and buildings      
Structures and buildings allowance 3% 3% H
Enhanced structures and buildings allowance 10% 10% I

A Allowance of 130% for companies on cost of most new plant and machinery that ordinarily qualifies for 18% main rate writing down allowances until 31 March 2023.
Allowance of 50% for companies on cost of most new plant and machinery that ordinarily qualifies for 6% special rate writing down allowances until 31 March 2023.
C
 Maximum annual investment allowance £1m pa.
D Reducing balance.
E Available for: research and development (no time limit); enterprise zone (assisted areas) until designated dates between 31 March 2021 and 16 March 2024; brand new low emission cars and gas refuelling stations until 31 March 2025; zero-emission goods vehicles until 31 March 2025/5 April 2025; and electric vehicle charge points until 31 March 2025/5 April 2025.
F Available on qualifying assets brought into use on or after the date the relevant freeport tax site is designated and before 30 September 2026.
G New and unused cars only. Allowances for second hand cars are 18% reducing balance.
H Expenditure on non residential structures and buildings on construction contracts entered into on or after 29 October 2018. 
I Available for structures and buildings in freeport tax sites for contracts entered into on or after the freeport is designated. 

VALUE ADDED TAX
  2022/23 2021/22  Note
Standard rate 20% 20%  A
Reduced rate 5% 5%  A
Annual turnover limit for registration £85,000 £85,000  B
Annual cash accounting upper limit £1,350,000 £1,350,000  
EC sales list reporting threshold Nil Nil C
Intrastat reporting      
Arrivals threshold £500,000 £1,500,000  D, E
Dispatches threshold £250,000 £250,000 D

Temporary reduced rate for hospitality and tourism sector - 5% from 15 July 2020 to 30 September 2021 and interim rate of 12.5% from 1 October 2021 to 31 March 2022, returning to standard rate from 1 April 2022.
B
Taxable turnover is measured by reference to the last 12 months or next 30 days.
C From 1 January 2021, EC sales lists are no longer required for goods exported from Great Britain and services supplied to EU businesses, but are still required for goods supplied from Northern Ireland to EU VAT registered customers. Simplified annual EC sales lists can be used where: annual taxable turnover does not exceed £110,500; goods supplied annually from Northern Ireland to EU VAT registered customers do not exceed £11,000; and, sales do not include new means of transport.
D From 1 January 2021, Intrastat declarations are no longer required for goods exported from Great Britain to the EU, but are still required for goods imported from the EU into Great Britain until 31 December 2021 and for goods moving between Northern Ireland and the EU.
E The intrastat reporting arrivals threshold was reduced to £500,000 from 1 January 2022.

 DIGITAL SERVICES TAX
The UK related revenues exceeding £25m pa of activities comprising search engines, social media platforms and online market places is chargeable at 2% on certain digital businesses with global in scope revenues exceeding £500m pa.
AUTHORISED MILEAGE RATES
    Per mile
Private cars and vans First 10,000 miles in the tax year 45p
  Additional miles 25p
  Each qualifying passenger 5p
Motor cycle   24p
Cycle   20p

The authorised mileage rates for private cars and vans above are for income tax purposes only. The authorised rate for NICs purposes is 45p per mile regardless of annual mileage.

CAR AND FUEL SCALE BENEFITS
      Note
Car benefit    Percentage (see below) of list price A
Fuel benefit - cars   £25,300 A
Van benefit   £3,600 A
Fuel benefit - vans   £688  
       
CO2 emissions (g/km): Electric range (miles) Diesel Other fuel
Nil     1%  B
1 - 50 130 or more 6% 2%  B
1 - 50
70 - 129 9% 5% B
1 - 50
40 - 69 12%  8%  B
1 - 50
30 - 39 16% 12%  B
1 - 50 Less than 30 18% 14%  B
51 - 54
19% 15%  B
Each additional 5   Further 1% Further 1%  B
Diesel 140 and over / Other fuel 160 and over   37%  37%   

A From 6 April 2023, car and van fuel benefit charges and van benefit charge will increase in line with CPI.
B On 6 April 2025, 6 April 2026, and 6 April 2027, benefit charge percentages for all cars will be increased by 1%, subject to a maximum of 5% for electric cars with a range in excess of 130 miles, 21% for cars with CO2 emissions below 50g/km and 37% for all other cars.

Diesel vehicles meeting the RDE2 standard are exempt from diesel supplement and the above other fuel rates apply for such vehicles.