Generally Accepted Accounting Practice in the UK (UK GAAP) is the body of accounting standards published by the Financial Reporting Council (FRC). These accounting and reporting standards together with the Companies Act 2006 govern how you present your financial statements.
- FRS 101 may only be applied by qualifying entities which are members of a group where the parent of that group prepares publicly available consolidated financial statements.
- All entities can choose to report under FRS 102 except those required to apply UK-adopted International accounting standards.
- Only small or micro entities can apply FRS 102 Section 1A.
- Only micro entities can apply FRS 105.
- UK GAAP - FRS 101
- UK GAAP - FRS 102
- UK GAAP - FRS 102 Section 1A
- UK GAAP - FRS 105
UK GAAP - FRS 101
FRS 101 ‘Reduced Disclosure Framework’ sets out the financial reporting requirements and disclosure exemptions available for use by subsidiaries and ultimate parent companies in their individual financial statements.
FRS 101 permits qualifying subsidiaries and ultimate parent companies to apply the recognition and measurement principles of IFRS in their individual financial statements. Applying FRS 101 may lead to a reduced number of consolidation adjustments necessary to produce the group accounts, and provides disclosure exemptions, a welcome relief from some of the extensive disclosure requirements of IFRS at the entity specific level.
FRS 101: What entities qualify
FRS 101 can only be applied by a qualifying entity.
A qualifying entity is a member of a group where the parent of that group prepares publicly available consolidated financial statements which are intended to give a true and fair view (of the assets, liabilities, financial position and profit or loss) and that member is included in the consolidation.
A charity may not be a qualifying entity.
Effective from periods beginning on or after 1 January 2023 (2018/2019 amendments to FRS 101), the definition of a qualifying entity was amended to exclude those entities both required to comply with Schedule 3 to the Accounting Regulations (or similar) and have contracts within the scope of IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts.
However, a qualifying entity which is required to, or voluntarily chooses to, prepare consolidated financial statements may not apply FRS 101 in its consolidated financial statements.
This does not prevent a qualifying entity which prepares consolidated accounts from applying FRS 101 in its individual financial statements and another reporting framework (eg UK-adopted International Accounting Standards) to its consolidated financial statements.
In order to apply the disclosure exemptions of FRS 101, a qualifying entity must also comply with the following requirements:
- Adopt the recognition, measurement and disclosure requirements of UK-adopted IFRS but make amendments where necessary in order to comply with the Companies Act and company regulations.
- a summary of the disclosure exemptions adopted; and
- the name of the parent of the group in whose consolidated financial statements the financial statements of the entity are included, and where these may be obtained.
Due to the disclosure reductions, a qualifying entity that prepares its financial statements in accordance with FRS 101 do not comply with all of the requirements of UK adopted International Accounting Standards. The financial statements therefore should not contain the unreserved statement of compliance required by IAS 1.
Please note that while an entity may meet the definition of a qualifying entity and may therefore apply FRS 101 to its individual financial statements, some of the disclosure exemptions may only be taken when other conditions are satisfied.
FRS 101 provides a number of disclosure exemptions for qualifying entities, some of which are available automatically and some of which require equivalent disclosure by the parent entity.
Some disclosure exemptions are automatically available such as:
- cash flow statements;
- key management personnel remuneration and transactions with parent companies and wholly owned subsidiaries; and
- comparative reconciliations for property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and investment property.
Others are available when equivalent disclosures are provided in the consolidated financial statements such as:
- for non-financial institutions many of the financial instrument and fair value disclosures;
- many disclosures in respect of business combinations and share-based payment arrangements; and
- details of key assumptions used for the purposes of impairment testing.
In addition, some of the disclosure exemptions are not available to entities which are financial institutions.
Disclosure exemptions automatically available
- The requirement to present an opening statement of financial position at the date of transition (IFRS 1.21).
- A statement of cash flows for the period (IAS 1.10(d), 111).
- A statement of financial position as at the beginning of the preceding period when an entity applies an accounting policy retrospectively or makes a retrospective restatement (IAS 1.10(f), 38A-38D,40A-40D).
- Comparative period information in respect of the following (IAS 1.38):
- a reconciliation of shares outstanding at the beginning and end of the period (IAS 1.79(a)(iv));
- a reconciliation of carrying amount of PPE at the beginning and end of the period (IAS 16.73(e));
- a reconciliation of carrying amount of intangible assets at the beginning and end of the period (IAS 38.118(e));
- reconciliations of investment property as measured under the fair value model and/or cost models at the beginning and end of the period (IAS 40.76 & 79(d)); and
- a reconciliation of carrying amount of biological assets at the beginning and end of the period (IAS 41.50).
- Information relating to the entities objectives, policies and processes for managing capital (IAS 1.134-136).
- Information relating to new IFRS standards which have been issued but which are not yet effective, including an assessment of the possible impact that it will have when it is adopted for the first time (IAS 8.30-31).
- Disclosure of key management personnel remuneration (IAS 24.17).
- Disclosure of amounts incurred by the entity for the provision of key management personnel services that are provided by a separate management entity (IAS 24.18A).
- Disclosure of related party transactions entered between two or more members of a group, provided that any subsidiary which is a party to the transaction is wholly owned by such a member.
Other disclosure exemptions available
The following disclosure exemptions are only available where equivalent disclosures are included in the consolidated financial statements of the group in which the entity is consolidated.
- Certain information relating to business combinations completed during the reporting period (IFRS 3.62 and IFRS 3 B64(d),(e),(g),(h),(j)-(m),(n)(ii), (o)(ii),(p), (q)(ii)).
- Details of any business combination required by B64 in relation to any business combination that occurred after the end of the reporting period, but before the financial statements were authorised for issue (IFRS 3.B66).
- Information relating to:
- incomplete accounting for business combinations;
- contingent consideration;
- contingent liabilities;
- reconciliation of goodwill; and
- an explanation of any amounts recognised in profit or loss that relates to assets or liabilities acquired in a business combination in the current or a previous period (IFRS 3.B67).
- The net cash flows attributable to operating, investing and financing activities of discontinued operations (IFRS 5.33(c)).
- All the disclosure requirements of IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures. (IFRS 7 - all disclosures).
- These exemptions are not available to entities which are financial institutions.
Fair value measurement
- Details of the valuation techniques and inputs used to develop measurements of assets and liabilities measured at fair value.
- The effect of measurements on total comprehensive income for assets and liabilities measured on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs. (IFRS 13.91-99).
- These exemptions are not available to entities which are financial institutions.
- Details of the valuation technique and key assumptions used to measure fair value less costs of disposal where the fair value is categorised as Level 2 or 3 in the fair value hierarchy and the asset or CGU has been subject to an impairment loss or reversal of impairment loss in the year (IAS 36130(f)(ii) & (iii)).
- The valuation technique and details of key assumptions used to determine recoverable amount for CGUS containing significant goodwill or intangible assets with an indefinite useful life and sensitivity to assumptions if a reasonable change in a key assumption would result in impairment (IAS 36.134(d)-(f)).
- For goodwill or intangible assets with indefinite useful lives allocate across multiple cash generating units, details of the key assumptions used in determining the recoverable amount and, sensitivity to assumptions if a reasonable change in a key assumption would result in impairment (IAS 36.135(c)-(e)).
- A reconciliation of share options in the year (IFRS 2.45(b)).
- Details of how fair value of the equity instruments granted during the period was determined. (IFRS 2.46-49).
- Information about the effect of share-based payments on profit or loss and financial position (IFRS 2.50-52).
- These exemptions are only available where the entity is either, a subsidiary and the arrangement concerns equity instruments of another group entity, or, where the entity is a parent and the arrangement concerns its own equity instruments and its separate financial statements are presented alongside the consolidated financial statements of the group.
UK GAAP - FRS 102
The following entities can apply FRS 102:
- entities which are not required to apply IFRS;
- small entities; and
Small entities can also apply the disclosure simplifications of FRS 102 Section 1A (S1A) and micro entities can also apply FRS 102 S1A or FRS 105.
The accounting policy choices you apply could enable you to influence the strength of your balance sheet or simplify your accounting but care must be taken because they may also create earnings volatility.
Fundamental to FRS 102 is the concept of ‘Fair Value’. In some instances you may require expert advice to determine a fair value.
FRS 102: Accounting policy choices
The accounting policy choices you use in FRS 102 could enable you to influence the strength of your balance sheet or simplify your accounting but be careful, because they may also create earnings volatility.
These may be capitalised as part of the cost of a qualifying asset or written off as incurred. A qualifying asset takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale and could be property, plant and equipment, investment properties or inventories. The policy must be applied consistently to each class of qualifying asset.
These may be written off as incurred or capitalised if certain criteria are met. It must be clearly demonstrated that the criteria have been achieved. The policy must be applied consistently to all expenditure that meets the criteria.
Each class of property, plant and equipment, heritage asset and intangible asset (other than goodwill and exploration and evaluation assets (EEA)) may be measured at fair value less depreciation and impairment losses. Gains and losses are recognised in a revaluation reserve or, in certain circumstances, profit and loss. Alternatively, these assets can be measured at depreciated cost less impairment losses.
An entity can choose to apply FRS 102 or the recognition and measurement principles of its international equivalent IAS 39 (as adopted in the UK) or IFRS 9 and the disclosure requirements of FRS 102. Public benefit entities may measure all concessionary loans made or received initially at the amount received/paid or at fair value.
Entities may apply the performance model or the accrual model on a class-by-class basis. Under the performance model income is only recognised when any performance conditions are met. With the accrual model, income is recognised on a systematic basis over the periods in which the entity recognises the related costs.
Leased property interests
A property interest held under an operating lease may be classified and accounted for as investment property if the property would otherwise meet the definition of an investment property and the lessee can measure the fair value of the property interest without undue cost or effort on an on-going basis. This option is available on a property-by-property basis.
Fundamental to FRS 102 is the concept of ‘Fair Value’. Fair value is the amount for which an asset, liability or equity instrument could be exchanged or settled between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction. In some instances you may require expert advice to determine a fair value.
Property, plant and equipment
A class of assets may be measured at fair value. Whilst there are no fixed intervals when revaluations must be performed, they must be performed with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying value does not materially differ from its fair value at the reporting date.
Investment property whose fair value can be reliably measured without undue cost or effort must be measured at fair value with gains and losses recognised in profit and loss.
Under FRS 102 certain instruments must be measured at fair value with gains and losses recognised in profit and loss (eg interest rate swaps/options, forward contracts, commodity contracts, some debt instruments and investments in non-convertible and non-puttable shares that are publicly traded or their fair value can be estimated reliably).
In individual entity accounts, investments in subsidiaries, associates and jointly controlled entities may be held at cost less impairment or fair value with gains and losses recognised in a revaluation reserve or, in certain circumstances, profit and loss. A parent may also opt to recognise fair value gains and losses entirely in profit or loss.
Intangible assets whose fair value can be measured reliably need to be recognised separately from goodwill on acquisition ie intellectual property, customer contracts, relationships, in-process R&D.
A living animal or plant may be measured at fair value (if fair value can be measured reliably) with gains and losses recognised in profit and loss or held at depreciated historical cost. The policy must be applied consistently to each class of biological asset and its related agricultural produce.
UK GAAP - FRS 102 Section 1A
Who can apply Section 1A?
Section 1A may be applied by:
- companies that are not excluded from the small companies regime;
- LLPs that are not excluded from the small LLPs regime*; and
- other unincorporated entities that qualify as small.
Generally, an entity will qualify as small if:
- two or more of the thresholds are met in the current financial year; and
- two or more of the thresholds were met in the previous financial year (if the company is not newly incorporated).
|Average number of employees
||50 or less|
A small entity that is a parent must also meet the small group thresholds.
What are the benefits of applying the small entity regime?
Whilst small entities still have an overarching requirement to prepare accounts that show a true and fair view, those reporting under the small company regime can:
- omit the profit and loss account and directors’ report when filing accounts at the Registrar*;
- use section 1A, to reduce the volume of disclosures in your accounts compared to applying all the disclosure requirements of FRS 102;
- simplify the accounting for some loans from related parties that are not at a market rate of interest as explained below;
- avoid the need to prepare a statement of cashflows;
- prepare single entity parent accounts rather than consolidated accounts; and
- prepare abridged accounts as your statutory accounts (if all members agree).
*Does not apply to charitable companies.
Parents of small groups continue to be exempt from the consolidation requirement and, together with their subsidiaries, may also be eligible to apply reduced disclosure options under FRS 102, the latter being an alternative to section 1A for qualifying entities.
However, directors will still have to comply with the Companies Act and show a true and far view of the company’s assets, liabilities, financial position and performance. You will, therefore, need to include all relevant disclosures even if these are not included in section 1A.
In terms of loans from related parties, the FRC as part of the 2017 triennial review issued an amendment regarding the initial measurement and recognition by small entities of loans from a person who is within a director’s group of close family members**, when that group contains at least one shareholder. The amendment allows a small entity to measure a loan on initial recognition at the transaction price, rather than the present value of the future payments. Subsequently such loans are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method.
**A director’s group of close family members shall be the director and the close members of the family of that director. This includes a person who is the sole director-shareholder of an entity.
UK GAAP - FRS 105
Who can apply FRS 105?
FRS 105 may be applied by companies that do not exceed two of the following criteria in the current year and in the prior year (unless the entity is newly incorporated):
|Average number of employees||10|
The 'two years in, two years out rule' for determining an entity’s size.
The micro entity provisions are not available to the following categories of entity:
- public limited companies;
- charitable companies;
- limited partnerships;
- overseas companies;
- unregistered companies;
- parent companies who head up a group which does not qualify as a small group;
- a company authorised to register under section 1040 Companies Act 2006;
- a company that is excluded from the small company’s regime under section 384 Companies Act 2006;
- parent companies that choose to prepare consolidated accounts when there is no legal requirement to do so; and
- companies that are included in consolidated group accounts for that year.
How is FRS 105 different to FRS 102?
FRS 105 is based on FRS 102 but has been adapted to reflect the simpler nature and smaller size of micro-entities and their legal requirements.
- no requirements to account for deferred tax and equity-settled share-based payments;
- simplified accounting for defined benefit pension schemes; and mandatory statutory disclosure requirements restricted to four areas and simplified primary statements.
(a) off-balance sheet arrangements as required by section 410A of the Act (see paragraph 6A.1 of Appendix A to this section);
(b) employee numbers as required by section 411 of the Act (see paragraph 6A.2 of Appendix A to this section);
(c) advances, credit and guarantees granted to directors as required by section 413 of the Act (see paragraph 6A.3 of Appendix A to this section); and
(d) financial commitments, guarantees and contingencies required by regulation 5A of, and paragraph 57 of Part 3 of Schedule 1 to, the Small Companies Regulations (see paragraphs 6A.4 and 6A.5 of Appendix A to this section).
- assets cannot be revalued (ie PPE);
- investment properties and financial instruments cannot be measured at fair value;
- development costs and borrowing costs cannot be capitalised;
- the accruals model must be used to account for grants; and
- it is not permitted to account for deferred tax.